Dey Arjun Dey, Arjun Dey, Kyoung Soo Lee, Naveen Reddy, Michael Cooper, Hanae Inami, Sungryong Hong, Anthony H. Gonzalez, Buell T. Jannuzi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


We present new observations of the field containing the z = 3.786 protocluster PC 217.96+32.3. We confirm that it is one of the largest known and most overdense high-redshift structures. Such structures are rare even in the largest cosmological simulations. We used the Mayall/MOSAIC1.1 imaging camera to image a 1.°2 0.°6 area (≈150 75 comoving Mpc) surrounding the protocluster's core and discovered 165 candidate Lyα emitting galaxies (LAEs) and 788 candidate Lyman Break galaxies (LBGs). There are at least two overdense regions traced by the LAEs, the largest of which shows an areal overdensity in its core (i.e., within a radius of 2.5 comoving Mpc) of 14 ± 7 relative to the average LAE spatial density () in the imaged field. Further, is twice that derived by other field LAE surveys. Spectroscopy with Keck/DEIMOS yielded redshifts for 164 galaxies (79 LAEs and 85 LBGs); 65 lie at a redshift of 3.785 ± 0.010. The velocity dispersion of galaxies near the core is σ = 350 ± 40 km s-1, a value robust to selection effects. The overdensities are likely to collapse into systems with present-day masses of >1015 M o and >6 1014 M o. The low velocity dispersion may suggest a dynamically young protocluster. We find a weak trend between narrow-band (Lyα) luminosity and environmental density: the Lyα luminosity is enhanced on average by 1.35 within the protocluster core. There is no evidence that the Lyα equivalent width depends on environment. These suggest that star formation and/or active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity is enhanced in the higher-density regions of the structure. PC 217.96+32.3 is a Coma cluster analog, witnessed in the process of formation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number11
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - May 20 2016


  • cosmology: observations
  • galaxies: clusters: individual
  • galaxies: distances and redshifts
  • galaxies: evolution
  • galaxies: formation
  • galaxies: high-redshift

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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