Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy of esophageal tissues at 100 kHz line rate

Simon C. Schlachter, Dongkyun Kang, Michalina J. Gora, Paulino Vacas-Jacques, Tao Wu, Robert W. Carruth, Eric J. Wilsterman, Brett E. Bouma, Kevin Woods, Guillermo J. Tearney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a reflectance confocal microscopy technology that uses a diffraction grating to illuminate different locations on the sample with distinct wavelengths. SECM can obtain line images without any beam scanning devices, which opens up the possibility of high-speed imaging with relatively simple probe optics. This feature makes SECM a promising technology for rapid endoscopic imaging of internal organs, such as the esophagus, at microscopic resolution. SECM imaging of the esophagus has been previously demonstrated at relatively low line rates (5 kHz). In this paper, we demonstrate SECM imaging of large regions of esophageal tissues at a high line imaging rate of 100 kHz. The SECM system comprises a wavelength-swept source with a fast sweep rate (100 kHz), high output power (80 mW), and a detector unit with a large bandwidth (100 MHz). The sensitivity of the 100-kHz SECM system was measured to be 60 dB and the transverse resolution was 1.6 μm. Excised swine and human esophageal tissues were imaged with the 100-kHz SECM system at a rate of 6.6 mm2/sec. Architectural and cellular features of esophageal tissues could be clearly visualized in the SECM images, including papillae, glands, and nuclei. These results demonstrate that largearea SECM imaging of esophageal tissues can be successfully conducted at a high line imaging rate of 100 kHz, which will enable whole-organ SECM imaging in vivo.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1637-1645
Number of pages9
JournalBiomedical Optics Express
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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