Spatial and transmural properties of the reentrant ventricular tachycardia circuit in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: Simultaneous epicardial and endocardial recordings

Ruhong Jiang, Takuro Nishimura, Andrew D. Beaser, Zaid A. Aziz, Gaurav A. Upadhyay, Dalise Y. Shatz, Hemal M. Nayak, Hongtao Liao, Xianzhang Zhan, Fa Po Chung, Yumei Xue, Shulin Wu, Roderick Tung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: While advances in the characterization of the structural substrate in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) have been made, the ventricular tachycardia (VT) circuit remains incompletely described. Objective: The purpose of this study was to delineate the reentrant VT circuit with simultaneous epicardial and endocardial mapping (SEEM) in ARVC. Methods: Twenty-three consecutive patients with ARVC and VT underwent SEEM at 4 centers between 2014 and 2020. Retrospective analysis was performed on combined isochronal activation maps. Results: Of the 30 VT circuits, 24 were delineated with SEEM (956 [341–1843] endocardial points and 1763 [882–3054] epicardial points). The apex and outflow tract rarely harbored VT circuits, with 50% distributed in the inferior wall and 43% in the free wall. The entire tachycardia cycle length was recorded from the epicardium in 71% of circuits. In all circuits, a large proportion of the tachycardia cycle length was recorded from the epicardium relative to the endocardium. Localized epicardial reentry was observed in 35% of patients (14 mm × 15 mm), which was associated with smaller endocardial low voltage area (39 cm2 vs 104 cm2; P =.002) and preserved right ventricular ejection fraction (35% vs 25%; P =.046) compared with those with larger circuit dimensions. Seventy percent of termination sites were achieved from the epicardium. Conclusion: High-resolution recordings from both myocardial surfaces confirm a consistent predominance of epicardial participation during reentry in ARVC. Only the perivalvular inflow region of the “triangle of dysplasia” had a strong propensity to harbor VT circuits, with the greatest proportion located in the inferior wall. Localized epicardial reentry may be a manifestation of earlier stage disease with a relative paucity of endocardial substrate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)916-925
Number of pages10
JournalHeart Rhythm
Volume18
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Ablation
  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy
  • Electroanatomic mapping
  • Epicardium
  • Reentry
  • Ventricular tachycardia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

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