Soluble (Pro)Renin Receptor Levels Are Regulated by Plasma Renin Activity and Correlated with Edema in Mice and Humans with HFrEF

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Symptomatic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is characterized by edema and chronic pathological activation of the classical renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS). The soluble (pro)renin receptor (s(P)RR) is released into circulation by proteolytic cleavage of tissue expressed (P)RR and is a candidate biomarker of RAAS activation. However, previous studies linked elevated levels of s(P)RR in patients with HFrEF to renal dysfunction. Utilizing prospectively enrolled patients with comparable rEF, we show that increased plasma levels of s(P)RR are associated with symptomatic HF (characterized by edema), independent of chronic renal dysfunction. We also found that s(P)RR levels were positively correlated with patient plasma renin activity (PRA). Normotensive mice with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and HFrEF, without renal dysfunction, showed plasma s(P)RR and PRA patterns similar to human HFrEF patients. Plasma s(P)RR levels positively correlated with PRA and systemic edema, but not with EF, resembling findings in patients with HFrEF without chronic kidney dysfunction. In female DCM mice with elevated PRA levels and plasma s(P)RR levels, a randomized, blinded trial comparing the direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren vs. vehicle control, showed that direct renin inhibition normalized PRA, lowered s(P)RR, and prevented symptomatic HFrEF. Considered in light of previous findings, these data suggest that, in HFrEF, in the absence of renal dysfunction, elevation of plasma s(P)RR levels is caused by increased PRA and associated with the development of systemic edema.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1874
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • edema
  • HFrEF
  • renin plasma activity
  • soluble (pro)renin receptor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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