Soft, Skin-Interfaced Microfluidic Systems with Passive Galvanic Stopwatches for Precise Chronometric Sampling of Sweat

Amay J. Bandodkar, Jungil Choi, Stephen P. Lee, William J. Jeang, Prophecy Agyare, Philipp Gutruf, Siqing Wang, Rebecca A. Sponenburg, Jonathan T. Reeder, Stephanie Schon, Tyler R. Ray, Shulin Chen, Sunita Mehta, Savanna Ruiz, John A. Rogers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations


Comprehensive analysis of sweat chemistry provides noninvasive health monitoring capabilities that complement established biophysical measurements such as heart rate, blood oxygenation, and body temperature. Recent developments in skin-integrated soft microfluidic systems address many challenges associated with standard technologies in sweat collection and analysis. However, recording of time-dependent variations in sweat composition requires bulky electronic systems and power sources, thereby constraining form factor, cost, and modes of use. Here, presented are unconventional design concepts, materials, and device operation principles that address this challenge. Flexible galvanic cells embedded within skin-interfaced microfluidics with passive valves serve as sweat-activated “stopwatches” that record temporal information associated with collection of discrete microliter volumes of sweat. The result allows for precise measurements of dynamic sweat composition fluctuations using in situ or ex situ analytical techniques. Integrated electronics based on near-field communication (NFC) protocols or docking stations equipped with standard electronic measurement tools provide means for extracting digital timing results from the stopwatches. Human subject studies of time-stamped sweat samples by in situ colorimetric methods and ex situ techniques based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and chlorodimetry illustrate the ability to quantitatively capture time-dynamic sweat chemistry in scenarios compatible with field use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1902109
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number32
StatePublished - Aug 2019


  • colorimetry
  • galvanic cells
  • microfluidics
  • sweat sensing
  • wireless electronics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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