Sociodemographic and metabolic risk characteristics associated with metabolic weight categories in the Women's Health Initiative

Amber R. Cordola Hsu, Susan L. Ames, Bin Xie, Darleen V. Peterson, Lorena Garcia, Scott B. Going, Nathan D. Wong, Hoda Anton-Culver

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Objective To identify sociodemographic and metabolic correlates of weight categories in postmenopausal women. Methods The Women's Health Initiative enrolled 161 808 postmenopausal women ages 50-79. We included those free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and with CVD risk factors and biomarkers (n = 19 412). Normal weight was defined as a BMI ≥18.5 and <25 kg/m2and waist circumference <88 cm and overweight/obesity as a BMI ≥25 kg/m2or waist circumference ≥88 cm. Metabolically healthy was based on <2 and metabolically unhealthy ≥2 traits: triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl, systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥130 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥85 mmHg or antihypertensives or diuretics, fasting glucose ≥100 mg/dl or diabetes medication, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <50 mg/dl. Polytomous multinomial logistic regression with generalized link logit function provided the odds of metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUHNW), metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO), and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUHO) according to demographic and risk factor measures. Results Among the 19 412 postmenopausal women, 2369 (12.2%) participants had prevalent diabetes. Advanced age was associated with an increased odds of MUHNW as compared with the MHNW after adjusting for covariates [odds ratio (OR) 1.04, P < 0.0001]. Black/African American ethnicity was associated with a decreased odds of MUHNW (OR 0.64, P < 0.0001) and MUHO (OR 0.77, P = 0.0004), while an increased odds for MHO (OR 1.50, P < 0.0001) as compared with White MHNW. Conclusions Advanced age and ethnicity are important indicators of metabolic weight categories among postmenopausal women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)42-48
Number of pages7
JournalCardiovascular Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2020


  • Women's Health Initiative
  • cardiometabolic disease
  • diabetes
  • obesity
  • postmenopausal women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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