Social inhibitory control in five lemur species

Rachna B. Reddy, Evan L. MacLean, Aaron A. Sandel, Brian Hare

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


We tested five lemur species—ring-tailed lemurs, ruffed lemurs, mongoose lemurs, black lemurs, and Coquerel’s sifakas—(N = 52) in an experiment that evaluated skills for inhibitory control in a social context. First, two human experimenters presented identical food rewards; the “generous” experimenter allowed the subject to eat from her hand, whereas the “competitive” experimenter always withheld the reward. Lemurs quickly learned to approach the generous experimenter and avoid the competitive one. In the inhibition test phase, we endowed the competitive experimenter with a more valuable food reward but the competitive experimenter continued to withhold food from the subject. Thus, lemurs were required to inhibit approaching the more desirable reward in favor of the lesser but obtainable reward presented by the generous experimenter. In test trials, lemurs’ tendency to approach the competitive experimenter increased from the reputation phase, demonstrating sensitivity to the experimental manipulation. However, subjects approached the larger reward less frequently in test trials compared with pretest food-preference trials, evidencing some capacity for inhibitory control in this context. Despite differences in sociality and ecology, the five lemur species did not differ in this ability. Although the study did not uncover species differences, this experimental task may provide a useful measure of social inhibition in broader comparative studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)241-252
Number of pages12
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 20 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Cognitive evolution
  • Inhibition
  • Lemur cognition
  • Strepsirrhines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology


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