Smoking and prostate cancer in a multi-ethnic cohort

Adam B. Murphy, Folasade Akereyeni, Yaw A. Nyame, Mignonne C. Guy, Iman K. Martin, Courtney M.P. Hollowell, Kelly Walker, Rick A. Kittles, Chiledum Ahaghotu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND Prostate cancer (PCa) and smoking-related morbidity disproportionately burdens African American (AA) men. Smoking is associated with high-grade PCa and incidence, but few studies have focused on AA men. This study aims to determine the effect of tobacco-use on odds of PCa and of high-grade PCa in a population of predominantly AA men. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study evaluating smoking and PCa status in men with incident PCa and screened healthy controls. Altogether, 1,085 men (527 cases and 558 controls), age ≥ 40 years were enrolled through outpatient urology clinics in two US cities from 2001 to 2012. Validated questionnaires were used to gather clinical and socioeconomic data. RESULTS The cases and controls were predominantly AA (79.9% and 71.3%, respectively, P = 0.01). AA men smoked more frequently (53.4% vs. 47.9%, P < 0.001) and quit less frequently than European American (EA) men (31.5% vs. 40.4%, P = 0.01). AA heavy smokers had increased odds of PCa diagnosis (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.09, 6.10) and high-grade cancer (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.03, 3.48) relative to never smokers and light smokers. Among AAs, heavy smokers had lower odds of NCCN low PCa recurrence risk stratification. AA former smokers had a trend for increased odds of high-grade cancer compared to never smokers. The associations between smokings, cancer diagnosis and cancer grade did not reach statistical significance in EA men. CONCLUSION We found ethnic differences in smoking behavior. Heavy smoking is associated with increased odds of PCa and of higher Gleason grade in AA men.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1518-1528
Number of pages11
Issue number14
StatePublished - Oct 2013


  • African American
  • cancer disparities
  • prostate cancer
  • smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology


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