Smartphone-based paper microfluidic competitive immunoassay for the detection of α-amanitin from mushrooms

Yan Liang, Avory Zhou, Candace S. Bever, Luisa W. Cheng, Jeong Yeol Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


α-Amanitin is often considered the most poisonous mushroom toxin produced by various mushroom species, which are hard to identify from edible, non-toxic mushrooms. Conventional detection methods require expensive and bulky equipment or fail to meet high analytical sensitivity. We developed a smartphone-based fluorescence microscope platform to detect α-amanitin from dry mushroom tissues. Antibody-nanoparticle conjugates were captured by immobilized antigen-hapten conjugates while competing with the free analytes in the sample. Captured fluorescent nanoparticles were excited at 460 nm and imaged at 500 nm. The pixel numbers of such nanoparticles in the test zone were counted, showing a decreasing trend with increasing analyte concentration. The detection method exhibited a low detection limit (1 pg/mL), high specificity, and selectivity, allowing us to utilize a simple rinsing for toxin extraction and avoiding the need for high-speed centrifugation. In addition, this assay’s short response time and portable features enable field detection of α-amanitin from amanitin-producing mushrooms. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number322
JournalMikrochimica Acta
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2022


  • Amatoxin
  • Competitive immunoassay
  • Mushroom toxin
  • Paper-based microfluidic chip
  • Smartphone microscope
  • α-AMA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry


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