Smarter Sole Survival: Will Neuropathic Patients at High Risk for Ulceration Use a Smart Insole-Based Foot Protection System?

Bijan Najafi, Eyal Ron, Ana Enriquez, Ivan Marin, Javad Razjouyan, David G. Armstrong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


Objective: This study examined adherence to alert-based cues for plantar pressure offloading in patients with diabetic foot disease. Method and Design: Participants (n = 17) with in diabetic foot remission (history of neuropathic ulceration) were instructed to wear a smart insole system (the SurroSense Rx, Orpyx Medical Technologies Inc, Calgary, Canada) over a three-month period. This device is designed to cue offloading to manage unprotected sustained plantar pressures in an effort to prevent foot ulceration. A successful response to an alert was defined as pressure offloading, which occurred within 20 minutes of the alert onset. Patient adherence, defined as daily hours of device wear, was determined using sensor data and patient questionnaires. Changes in these parameters were assessed monthly. Results: Patients demonstrating increased adherence over the course of the study received more alerts (0.82 ± 0.31 alerts/hour) than patients whose adherence did not improve (0.36 ± 0.46 alerts/hour, P =.156). By the final stages of the study, participants who had received at least one alert every two hours were more adherent with offloading than participants who received fewer alerts (52.5 ± 4.1% vs 24.7 ± 22.4%, P =.043). Furthermore, duration of time from alert generation to successful offloading was significantly greater in the group receiving fewer alerts. This was measured in the third month with an effect size Cohen's d = 1.739, P =.043. Conclusion: The results suggest a minimum number of alerts (one every two hours) is required for patients with diabetic neuropathy to optimally respond to offloading cues from a smart insole system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)702-713
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017


  • Orpyx
  • SurroSense Rx
  • adherence
  • diabetic foot ulcer
  • offloading
  • physical activity monitoring
  • wearable sensors
  • wound healing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomedical Engineering


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