Slit-scanning confocal microendoscope for high-resolution in vivo imaging

Yashvinder S. Sabharwal, Andrew R. Rouse, La Tanya Donaldson, Mark F. Hopkins, Arthur F. Gmitro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

149 Scopus citations


We discuss the design and construction of a novel imaging system in which a fiber-optic imaging bundle and miniature optical and mechanical components are used to allow confocal fluorescence microscopy in remote locations. The instrumentation has been developed specifically for cellular examination of tissue for optical biopsy. Miniaturization of various components makes the device usable in a clinical setting. The numerical aperture of the beam in the tissue is 0.5, and the field of view is 430 μm. The measured lateral resolution of the system is 3.0 μm. The axial point and the axial planar response functions of the confocal system were measured with aFWHMof 10 and 25 mm, respectively. In vitro and in vivo images obtained with cell cultures, human tissue specimens, and animal models indicate that the performance of the device is adequate for microscopic evaluation of cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7133-7144
Number of pages12
JournalApplied optics
Issue number34
StatePublished - Dec 1 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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