Background: Black smokers have earlier development of lung disease as well as poorer sleep health than whites. Research Question: In a sample of black smokers, to what extent does sleep health modify the association between smoking level and functional exercise capacity? Design and Methods: Cross-sectional data from 209 black smokers (≥ 1 cigarette in last month), aged 40 to 65 years with no evidence of sleep-disordered breathing (apnea-hypopnea index < 15) or severe COPD (FEV1 > 50%), were used for the current study. Self-reported smoking rate, objectively measured sleep efficiency (SE), total sleep time (TST), and the 6-min walk test (6MWT) for functional exercise capacity were the key assessments. Results: The mean age was 54.8 years (SD, 5.96), and mean cigarettes smoked per day (cpd) was 8.71 (SD, 6.78). Mean SE was 69.9% (SD, 12.3%), and mean TST was 307.99 min (SD 92.2). In adjusted linear regression models of the 6MWT (meters), TST (slope estimate, –0.14; P = .14) and SE (slope estimate, –1.0; P = .19) were negatively associated with 6MWT. The smoking rate × SE interaction was highly significant (slope estimate, 0.18; P = .007) such that in individuals who smoked ≥ 10 cpd, every additional percentage of SE garnered an additional distance of 0.83 to 6.62 m. Similarly, the smoking rate × TST interaction was significant (slope estimate, 0.019; P = .03) such that in smokers who smoked ≥ 10 cpd, every additional minute of TST garnered an additional distance of 0.04 to 0.60 m. Interpretation: Higher SE and, to a lesser extent, longer TST, in black adults who smoke ≥ 10 cpd is associated with better 6MWT performance. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT03534076; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.
- 6-min walk test
- black adults
- sleep health
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine