We report a study in Drosophila melanogaster of latitudinal clines for 23 SNPs embedded in 13 genes (Pgi, Gapdh1, UGPase, Pglym78, Pglym87, Eno, Men, Gdh, Sod, Pgk, Mdh1, TreS, Trek) representing various metabolic enzymes. Our samples are from 10 populations spanning latitude from southern Florida to northern Vermont. Three new clines with latitude were detected. These are the amino acid polymorphisms in the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (Gdh) and trehalase (Treh) genes, and a silent site polymorphism in the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene (UGPase). The result, when combined with the overall incidence and pattern of reports for six other genes (Adh, Gpdh, Pgm, G6pd, 6Pgd, Hex-C), presents a picture of latitudinal clines in metabolic genes prevalent around the branch point of competing pathways. For six of the seven amino acid polymorphisms showing significant latitudinal clines in North America, the derived allele is the one increasing with latitude, suggesting temperate adaptation. This is consistent with a model of an Afrotropical ancestral species adapting to temperate climates through selection favoring new mutations.
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