Short-term function and immune-protection of microencapsulated adult porcine islets with alginate incorporating CXCL12 in healthy and diabetic non-human primates without systemic immune suppression: A pilot study

Marinko Sremac, Hao Luo, Hongping Deng, Madeline F.E. Parr, Jessica Hutcheson, Pushkar S. Verde, David A. Alagpulinsa, Jenna Miner Kitzmann, Klearchos K. Papas, Timothy Brauns, James F. Markmann, Ji Lei, Mark C. Poznansky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Replacement of insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells by islet transplantation offers a functional cure for type-1 diabetes (T1D). We recently demonstrated that a clinical grade alginate micro-encapsulant incorporating the immune-repellent chemokine and pro-survival factor CXCL12 could protect and sustain the integrity and function of autologous islets in healthy non-human primates (NHPs) without systemic immune suppression. In this pilot study, we examined the impact of the CXCL12 micro encapsulant on the function and inflammatory and immune responses of xenogeneic islets transplanted into the omental tissue bilayer sac (OB; n = 4) and diabetic (n = 1) NHPs. Changes in the expression of cytokines after implantation were limited to 2–6-fold changes in blood, most of which did not persist over the first 4 weeks after implantation. Flow cytometry of PBMCs following transplantation showed minimal changes in IFNγ or TNFα expression on xenoantigen-specific CD4+ or CD8+ T cells compared to unstimulated cells, and these occurred mainly in the first 4 weeks. Microbeads were readily retrievable for assessment at day 90 and day 180 and at retrieval were without microscopic signs of degradation or foreign body responses (FBR). In vitro and immunohistochemistry studies of explanted microbeads indicated the presence of functional xenogeneic islets at day 30 post transplantation in all biopsied NHPs. These results from a small pilot study revealed that CXCL12-microencapsulated xenogeneic islets abrogate inflammatory and adaptive immune responses to the xenograft. This work paves the way toward future larger scale studies of the transplantation of alginate microbeads with CXCL12 and porcine or human stem cell-derived beta cells or allogeneic islets into diabetic NHPs without systemic immunosuppression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere12826
JournalXenotransplantation
Volume30
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • alginate
  • chemokine CXCL12
  • immunosuppression
  • microencapsulated
  • porcine islets

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Transplantation

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