Short survival and frequent transformation in extranodal marginal zone lymphoma with multiple mucosal sites presentation

Juan Pablo Alderuccio, Wei Zhao, Amrita Desai, Jeremy Ramdial, Nicolas Gallastegui, Erik Kimble, Macarena I. de la Fuente, Muhammad Husnain, Joseph D. Rosenblatt, Alvaro J. Alencar, Jonathan H. Schatz, Craig H. Moskowitz, Jennifer R. Chapman, Francisco Vega, Isildinha M. Reis, Izidore S. Lossos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Between 11 and 37% of extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL) patients present with disease involvement in multiple mucosal sites (MMS). We analyzed 405 EMZL patients seen between 1995 and 2017: 265 (65.4%) patients presented with stage I disease, 49 of 309 (15.8%) patients with bone marrow involvement, and 35 of 328 (10.7%) patients with monoclonal gammopathy (MG). Forty-three (10.6%) patients had MMS presentation, which was more frequently seen in patients aged >60 years (55.8%). Five (17.9%) of 28 MMS patients had MG. MMS patients commonly exhibited the International Prognostic Index (IPI) >2 (79.1%), Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) >2 (39.5%), and Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (MALT-IPI) 2-3 (60.5%). Both MMS presentation and MG were associated with shorter survival univariately. In multivariable Cox regression models, shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were observed in patients with MMS (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.08 and 2.92, respectively), age ≥60 years (HR = 1.52 and 2.45, respectively), and in patients who failed to attain a complete remission following initial therapy (HR = 3.27 and 2.13, respectively). Elevated lactate dehydrogenase was associated with shorter PFS (HR = 1.92), while anemia (HR = 2.46) was associated with shortened OS. MALT-IPI ≥2 (HR = 2.47 and 4.75), FLIPI >2 (HR = 1.65 and 2.09), and IPI >2 (HR = 2.09 and 1.73) were associated with shorter PFS and OS, respectively. Higher grade transformation (HGT) occurred in 11 (25.6%) MMS patients with a 5-year cumulative incidence of 13.2% (95% CI 4.7-26.1%). EMZL patients with MMS presentation represent a novel clinical subset associated with shorter PFS, OS, and higher incidence of HGT that needs novel therapeutic approaches.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)585-596
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Hematology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology


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