Sex-specific immune modulation of primary hypertension

Kathryn Sandberg, Hong Ji, Meredith Hay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


It is well known that the onset of essential hypertension occurs earlier in men than women. Numerous studies have shown sex differences in the vasculature, kidney and sympathetic nervous system contribute to this sex difference in the development of hypertension. The immune system also contributes to the development of hypertension; however, sex differences in immune system modulation of blood pressure (BP) and the development of hypertension has only recently begun to be explored. Here we review findings on the effect of one's sex on the immune system and specifically how these effects impact BP and the development of primary hypertension. We also propose a hypothesis for why mechanisms underlying inflammation-induced hypertension are sex-specific. These studies underscore the value of and need for studying both sexes in the basic science exploration of the pathophysiology of hypertension as well as other diseases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)95-101
Number of pages7
JournalCellular Immunology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2015


  • Hypertension
  • Inflammation
  • Kidney
  • Sex differences
  • Subfornical organ
  • T-cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology


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