Background: We compared the rates of stroke, death, and/or MI between men and women, stratified by symptomatic status and procedure type (carotid endarterectomy [CEA] or carotid artery stent [CAS]). Study Design: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, crude and propensity-matched rates of the composite end point of stroke/death/MI were estimated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of stroke/death/MI associated with sex. Results: Between 2005 and 2015, there were 1,242,688 carotid interventions performed (1,083,912 CEA; 158,776 CAS; 515,789 [41.5%] were female patients). Symptomatic admissions comprised 11.3% of the cohort. In-hospital stroke/death/MI rates were more prevalent in men compared with women (4.2% vs 3.9%; p < 0.01). Subgroup analysis revealed symptomatic women vs men had higher rates of stroke after CEA (7.7% vs 6.2%; p < 0.01) and CAS (9.9% vs 7.6%; p < 0.01). Asymptomatic women experienced the same rates of stroke after either CEA (0.3% vs 0.3%; p = 0.051) or CAS (0.4% vs 0.5%; p = 0.09). Propensity-matched logistic regression revealed that symptomatic males vs females had lower odds of stroke after CEA (odds ratio [OR] 0.81; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.91) and CAS (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.90). Asymptomatic men and women had similar odds of stroke after both CEA (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.14) and CAS (OR 0.70; 95% CI 0.43 to 1.13). Conclusions: This is the largest cohort study to date that demonstrates asymptomatic women undergoing CEA or CAS do not have a higher risk of perioperative stroke, death, or MI. Symptomatic men experience lower rates of stroke after CEA or CAS.
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