Sex and Gender Differences in Pulmonary Manifestations of Autoimmune Disease

Muddassir Aliniazee, Marilyn K. Glassberg

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Although only 8% of the population develop autoimmune diseases (AD), 78% are women. The pulmonary manifestations range from mild to life-threatening and the severity depends on the AD. In some AD, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), gender differences are well recognized. More men develop pulmonary disease in RA, which includes interstitial lung disease, rheumatoid nodules, and pleural effusions. In scleroderma, 40-80% of patients develop pulmonary complications that contribute to the high mortality rate. Sjögren's syndrome has a low mortality rate and rarely involves the lungs. This chapter focuses on the literature available on sex hormone differences in the pulmonary manifestations of RA, scleroderma, and the association of Raynaud's phenomenon. Women appear to have increased susceptibility to most AD, excluding RA. The available clinical data are minimal and support further research and clinical studies to define the role of hormones in the lung and their role in AD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPrinciples of Gender-Specific Medicine
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages9
ISBN (Print)9780123742711
StatePublished - 2010
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)
  • Medicine(all)


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