Serum potassium changes due to concomitant ACEI/ARB and spironolactone therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Lorenzo Villa-Zapata, Briggs S. Carhart, John R. Horn, Philip D. Hansten, Vignesh Subbian, Sheila Gephart, Malinda Tan, Andrew Romero, Daniel C Malone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

PURPOSE: To provide evidence of serum potassium changes in individuals taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and/or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) concomitantly with spironolactone compared to ACEI/ARB therapy alone. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for studies including exposure to both spironolactone and ACEI/ARB therapy compared to ACEI/ARB therapy alone. The primary outcome was serum potassium change over time. Main effects were calculated to estimate average treatment effect using random effects models. Heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran's Q and I2. Risk of bias was assessed using the revised Cochrane risk of bias tool. RESULTS: From the total of 1,225 articles identified, 20 randomized controlled studies were included in the meta-analysis. The spironolactone plus ACEI/ARB group included 570 patients, while the ACEI/ARB group included 547 patients. Treatment with spironolactone and ACEI/ARB combination therapy compared to ACEI/ARB therapy alone increased the mean serum potassium concentration by 0.19 mEq/L (95% CI, 0.12-0.26 mEq/L), with intermediate heterogeneity across studies (Q statistic = 46.5, P = 0.004; I2 = 59). Sensitivity analyses showed that the direction and magnitude of this outcome did not change with the exclusion of individual studies, indicating a high level of reliability. Reporting risk of bias was low for 16 studies (80%), unclear for 3 studies (15%) and high for 1 study (5%). CONCLUSION: Treatment with spironolactone in combination with ACEI/ARB therapy increases the mean serum potassium concentration by less than 0.20 mEq/L compared to ACEI/ARB therapy alone. However, serum potassium and renal function must be monitored in patients starting combination therapy to avoid changes in serum potassium that could lead to hyperkalemia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2245-2255
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
Volume78
Issue number24
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 9 2021

Keywords

  • angiotensin receptor blockers
  • angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
  • hyperkalemia
  • spironolactone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacy
  • Pharmacology
  • Health Policy

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Serum potassium changes due to concomitant ACEI/ARB and spironolactone therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this