Sequential and Simultaneous Interactions of Plant Allelochemical Flavone, Bt Toxin Vip3A, and Insecticide Emamectin Benzoate in Spodoptera frugiperda

Kaiyuan Huang, Haibo He, Shan Wang, Min Zhang, Xuewei Chen, Zhongyuan Deng, Xinzhi Ni, Xianchun Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Target pests of genetically engineered crops producing both defensive allelochemicals and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins often sequentially or simultaneously uptake allelochemicals, Bt toxins, and/or insecticides. How the three types of toxins interact to kill pests remains underexplored. Here we investigated the interactions of Bt toxin Vip3A, plant allelochemical flavone, and insecticide emamectin benzoate in Spodoptera frugiperda. Simultaneous administration of flavone LC25 + Vip3A LC25, emamectin benzoate LC25 + Vip3A LC25, and flavone LC15 + emamectin benzoate LC15 + Vip3A LC15 but not flavone LC25 + emamectin LC25 yielded a mortality significantly higher than their expected additive mortality (EAM). One-day pre-exposure to one toxin at LC5 followed by six-day exposure to the same toxin at LC5 plus another toxin at LC50 showed that the mortality of flavone LC5 + Vip3A LC50, emamectin benzoate LC5 + Vip3A LC50, and Vip3A LC5 + emamectin benzoate LC50 were significantly higher than their EAM, while that of flavone LC5 + emamectin benzoate LC50 was significantly lower than their EAM. No significant difference existed among the mortalities of Vip3A LC5 + flavone LC50, emamectin benzoate LC5 + flavone LC50, and their EAMs. The results suggest that the interactions of the three toxins are largely synergistic (inductive) or additive, depending on their combinations and doses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number736
JournalInsects
Volume14
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2023

Keywords

  • allelochemical
  • Bt toxin
  • chemical insecticide
  • combined toxicity
  • induced toxicity
  • synergistic interactions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Insect Science

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