Scoping Review of Toxoplasma Postinfectious Sequelae

Erika Austhof, Kylie Boyd, Kenzie Schaefer, Caitlyn McFadden, Ama Owusu-Dommey, Sandra Hoffman, Lorenzo Villa-Zapata, Deborah Jean McClelland, Kristen Pogreba-Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Previous economic estimates of infection with Toxoplasma gondii and chronic sequelae following infection lack sufficient data to establish the true burden of disease and its chronic sequelae. This scoping review aims to fill this gap by updating existing literature regarding the development of postinfectious sequelae following T. gondii infection. Literature published between January 1, 2000, and November 6, 2018, in PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus was searched for a wide range of postinfectious sequelae and economic estimate terms. This scoping review includes summaries from the 108 articles covering 5 main groupings of outcomes (categories are not exclusive) including vision disorders (n = 58), psychological and mental health disorders (n = 27), neurological disorders (n = 17), fetal death and infection (n = 15), and hearing loss (n = 6), as well as a description of other outcomes reported. While the majority of the included studies assessed the incidence of these outcomes postinfection, very few followed participants long-term. These prospective studies are needed to understand the true burden of postinfectious sequelae over the life course, particularly because congenital infection with Toxoplasma can lead to severe outcomes for newborns. This scoping review can be used as an important resource for other researchers wishing to conduct future systematic reviews and meta-analyses, as well as for policy makers interested in developing guidance for public and health care partners.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)687-701
Number of pages15
JournalFoodborne Pathogens and Disease
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2021


  • Toxoplasma
  • health outcomes
  • postinfectious sequelae
  • scoping review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Food Science
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Animal Science and Zoology


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