School climate perceptions at the intersection of sex, grade, sexual, and gender identity

Salvatore Ioverno, Stephen T. Russell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


School climate is an important construct in research on adolescents. Yet, no known studies have evaluated whether the measured school climate constructs are equivalent across lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning (LGBTQ), and heterosexual students as well as sex and grade levels. This study assessed measurement equivalence of a second-order school climate construct across 1) sexual identity and sex among cisgender adolescents and 2) sexual and gender identity and grade level among cisgender and transgender adolescents. Data come from a California statewide survey of middle and high school students. Measurement equivalence was supported. This study reinforces prior findings on sexual and gender minority disparities and sheds light on an interesting pattern of school experiences across grades that deserves further investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)325-336
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Research on Adolescence
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • LGBT
  • grade differences
  • measurement invariance
  • school climate
  • sex differences

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cultural Studies
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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