Salivirus/klassevirus: An emerging virus associated with paediatric diarrhea/acute flaccid paralysis and environmental contamination

Masaaki Kitajima, Eiji Haramoto, Charles P Gerba

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Salivirus and klassevirus, possessing a positive-sense polyadenylated singlestranded RNA genome, are novel members of the family Picornaviridae and most closely related to Aichi virus of the genus Kobuvirus. Both salivirus and klassevirus were first described in 2009; salivirus was discovered in the feces of children with non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Nigeria (Stool Aichi- LIke virus), whereas klassevirus was found in the feces of children with gastroenteritis in the United States and Australia as well as in a sewage sample collected in Spain (Kobu-Like virus Associated with Stool and SEwage). Salivirus is genetically indistinguishable from klassevirus, and these viruses are currently classified into the novel genus, Salivirus. Salivirus/klassevirus has been identified in the feces of patients in Asian, European, and South American continents as well, suggesting its worldwide distribution. Recent studies also detected salivirus/klassevirus in wastewater, river water, and biosolids, in Asian, European, and American continents. These recent findings have suggested that salivirus and klassevirus are emerging viral pathogens associated with gastroenteritis or non-polio AFP in infants and environmental transmission is likely. Further clinical and environmental studies are needed to better understand their prevalence, distribution, molecular epidemiology, and significance to public health

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationInfluenza and RNA Viruses
Subtitle of host publicationEmergence, Classification and Management
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9781633218116
ISBN (Print)9781633217997
StatePublished - Oct 1 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Immunology and Microbiology


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