Rubber‐toughening in polypropylene

B. Z. Jang, D. R. Uhlmann, J. B.Vander Sande

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

205 Scopus citations


To deformation and fracture behavior of several polypropylene (PP) and rubber‐modified PP materials have been investigated. Plastic deformation mechanisms of these systems depend upon the test rate and temperature with high rates and low temperatures being in favor of crazing. The ductility and toughness of these materials are explained in light of the competition between crack formation and the degree of plastic deformation through crazing and shear yielding. The second phase morphology with smaller average rubber particle diameter D appears to be more efficient than that with larger D in toughening PP. Theoretical calculations indicate that the stresses imposed upon the rubber particles due to volume shrinkage of PP during crystallization are sufficient to compensate for the stresses due to differential thermal contraction in cooling from solidification temperature to end‐use temperature. The difference between these two is small, and therefore they provide very little contribution to interfacial adhesion between rubber particle and PP matrix, the adhesion being insufficient for the rubber particles to be effective in controlling craze propagation. The rubber particles, in addition to promoting crazing and shear yielding, can also improve the fracture resistance of PP by varying the crystalline structure of PP (e.g., reducing the spherulite dimensions).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2485-2504
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Applied Polymer Science
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1985

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry


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