Root Border Cells and Their Role in Plant Defense

Martha Hawes, Caitilyn Allen, B. Gillian Turgeon, Gilberto Curlango-Rivera, Tuan Minh Tran, David A. Huskey, Zhongguo Xiong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

69 Scopus citations


Root border cells separate from plant root tips and disperse into the soil environment. In most species, each root tip can produce thousands of metabolically active cells daily, with specialized patterns of gene expression. Their function has been an enduring mystery. Recent studies suggest that border cells operate in a manner similar to mammalian neutrophils: Both cell types export a complex of extracellular DNA (exDNA) and antimicrobial proteins that neutralize threats by trapping pathogens and thereby preventing invasion of host tissues. Extracellular DNases (exDNases) of pathogens promote virulence and systemic spread of the microbes. In plants, adding DNase I to root tips eliminates border cell extracellular traps and abolishes root tip resistance to infection. Mutation of genes encoding exDNase activity in plant-pathogenic bacteria (Ralstonia solanacearum) and fungi (Cochliobolus heterostrophus) results in reduced virulence. The study of exDNase activities in plant pathogens may yield new targets for disease control.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)143-161
Number of pages19
JournalAnnual Review of Phytopathology
StatePublished - Aug 4 2016


  • ExDNA
  • ExDNase
  • Extracellular traps
  • Rhizosphere
  • Root cap slime

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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