Roles of exosomes in the normal and diseased eye

Mikael Klingeborn, W. Michael Dismuke, Catherine Bowes Rickman, W. Daniel Stamer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

83 Scopus citations

Abstract

Exosomes are nanometer-sized vesicles that are released by cells in a controlled fashion and mediate a plethora of extra- and intercellular activities. Some key functions of exosomes include cell-cell communication, immune modulation, extracellular matrix turnover, stem cell division/differentiation, neovascularization and cellular waste removal. While much is known about their role in cancer, exosome function in the many specialized tissues of the eye is just beginning to undergo rigorous study. Here we review current knowledge of exosome function in the visual system in the context of larger bodies of data from other fields, in both health and disease. Additionally, we discuss recent advances in the exosome field including use of exosomes as a therapeutic vehicle, exosomes as a source of biomarkers for disease, plus current standards for isolation and validation of exosome populations. Finally, we use this foundational information about exosomes in the eye as a platform to identify areas of opportunity for future research studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)158-177
Number of pages20
JournalProgress in Retinal and Eye Research
Volume59
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2017
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Age-related macular degeneration
  • Biomarker
  • Exosome
  • Extracellular vesicle
  • Glaucoma
  • Proteome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems

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