Risk factors associated with Coccidioides infection in dogs

Christine D. Butkiewicz, Lisa F. Shubitz, Sharon M. Dial

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    21 Scopus citations


    Objective - To evaluate potential risk factors for Coccidioides infection among dogs living in a region in which the organism is endemic (Pima and Maricopa counties, Arizona). Design -Community-based longitudinal and cross-sectional studies. Animals - 104 healthy 4- to 6-month-old puppies (longitudinal study) and 381 4- to 18-month-old dogs with unknown serostatus (cross-sectional study). Procedure - Dogs in the longitudinal study were tested 3 times at 6-month intervals for anticoccidioidal antibodies; dogs in the cross-sectional study were tested only once. Owners of all dogs completed a questionnaire on potential environmental exposures. Results - In the longitudinal study, the relative risk of infection for dogs that were outdoors during the day was 4.9 times the risk for dogs that were kept indoors. Seropositive dogs in the cross-sectional study were 6.2 times as likely to have access to > 1 acre to roam as were seronegative dogs. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds of infection increased with age (odds ratio [OR], 1.1), amount of roaming space (OR, 2.4), and walking in the desert (OR, 2.2). Walking on sidewalks had a protective effect (OR, 0.4). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Results suggest that in regions in which the organism is endemic, dogs that spend more time outdoors or have more land in which to roam are at greater risk of infection with Coccidioides spp.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)1851-1854
    Number of pages4
    JournalJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
    Issue number11
    StatePublished - Jun 1 2005

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • General Veterinary


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