Risk Assessment of Virus in Drinking Water

Charles N. Haas, Joan B. Rose, Charles Gerba, Stig Regli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

223 Scopus citations


The reevaluation of drinking water treatment practices in a desire to minimize the formation of disinfection byproducts while assuring minimum levels of public health protection against infectious organisms has caused it to become necessary to consider the problem of estimation of risks posed from exposure to low levels of microorganisms, such as virus or protozoans, found in treated drinking water. This paper outlines a methodology based on risk assessment principles to approach the problem. The methodology is validated by comparison with results obtained in a prospective epidemiological study. It is feasible to produce both point and interval estimates of infection, illness and perhaps mortality by this methodology. Areas of uncertainty which require future data are indicated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)545-552
Number of pages8
JournalRisk Analysis
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1993


  • Virus
  • infectious disease
  • water supply

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Physiology (medical)


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