Risk adjustment and outcome measures for out-of-hospital respiratory distress

Samuel M. Keim, Daniel W. Spaite, Ronald F. Maio, Herbert G. Garrison, Jeffrey S. Desmond, Mary Ann Gregor, Patricia J. O'Malley, Ian G. Stiell, C. Gene Cayten, John L. Chew, Ellen J. MacKenzie, David R. Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


The purpose of the Emergency Medical Services Outcomes Project (EMSOP) is to develop a foundation and framework for out-of-hospital outcomes research. In prior work, this group delineated the priority conditions, described conceptual models, suggested core and risk adjustment measures potentially useful to emergency medical services research, and summarized out-of-hospital pain measurement. In this fifth article in the EMSOP series, the authors recommend specific risk-adjustment measures and outcome measures for use in out-of-hospital research on patients presenting with respiratory distress. The methodology included systematic literature searches and a structured review by an expert panel. The EMSOP group recommends use of pulse oximetry, peak expiratory flow rate, and the visual analog dyspnea scale as potential risk-adjustment measures and outcome measures for out-of-hospital research in patients with respiratory distress. Furthermore, using mortality as an outcome measure is also recommended. Future research is needed to alleviate the paucity of validated tools for out-of-hospital outcomes research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1074-1081
Number of pages8
JournalAcademic Emergency Medicine
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2004


  • mortality
  • out-of-hospital research
  • outcomes
  • peak expiratory flow rate
  • pulse oximetry
  • respiratory distress
  • risk adjustment
  • visual analog dyspnea scale

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Risk adjustment and outcome measures for out-of-hospital respiratory distress'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this