Precision optics have been widely required in many advanced technological applications. X-ray mirrors, as an example, serve as the key optical components at synchrotron radiation and free electron laser facilities. They are rectangular silicon or glass substrates where a rectangular Clear Aperture (CA) needs to be polished to sub-nanometer Root Mean Squared (RMS) to keep the imaging capability of the incoming X-ray wavefront at the diffraction limit. The convolutional polishing model requires a CA to be extended with extra data, from which the dwell time is calculated via deconvolution. However, since deconvolution is very sensitive to boundary errors and noise, the existing surface extension methods can hardly fulfill the sub-nanometer requirement. On one hand, the figure errors in a CA were improperly modeled during the extension, leading to continuity issues along the boundary. On the other hand, uncorrectable high-frequency errors and noise were also extended. In this study, we propose a novel Robust Iterative Surface Extension (RISE) method that resolves these problems with a data fitting strategy. RISE models the figure errors in a CA with orthogonal polynomials and ensures that only correctable errors are fit and extended. Combined with boundary conditions, an iterative refinement of dwell time is then proposed to compensate the errors brought by the extension and deconvolution, which drastically reduces the estimated figure error residuals in a CA while the increase of total dwell time is negligible. To our best knowledge, RISE is the first data fitting-based surface extension method and is the first to optimize dwell time based on iterative extension. An experimental verification of RISE is given by fabricating two elliptic cylinders (10 mm × 80 mm CAs) starting from a sphere with a radius of curvature around 173 m using ion beam figuring. The figure errors in the two CAs greatly improved from 204.96 nm RMS and 190.28 nm RMS to 0.62 nm RMS and 0.71 nm RMS, respectively, which proves that RISE is an effective method for sub-nanometer level X-ray mirror fabrication.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics