Vaccination is an effective strategy to prevent infections in immunocompromised hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Pretransplant vaccination of influenza, pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenza type b, diphtheria, tetanus, and hepatitis B, both in donors and transplant recipients, produces high antibody titers in patients compared with recipient vaccination only. Because transplant recipients are immunocompromised, live vaccines should be avoided with few exceptions. Transplant recipients should get inactive vaccinations when possible to prevent infection. This includes vaccination against influenza, pneumococcus, H. influenza type b, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, meningococcus, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis B. Close contacts of transplant recipients can safely get vaccinations (inactive and few live vaccines) as per their need and schedule. Transplant recipients who wish to travel may need to get vaccinated against endemic diseases that are prevalent in such areas. There is paucity of data on the role of vaccinations for patients receiving novel immunotherapy such as bispecific antibodies and chimeric antigen receptor T cells despite data on prolonged B cell depletion and higher risk of opportunistic infections.
- Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
- Infection prophylaxis
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