Retinal venous oxygen saturation and cardiac output during controlled hemorrhage and resuscitation

Kurt R. Denninghoff, Matthew H. Smith, Art Lompado, Lloyd W. Hillman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


The objective was to test calibration of an eye oximeter (EOX) in a vitiligo swine eye and correlate retinal venous oxygen saturation (SrvO2), mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), and cardiac output (CO) during robust changes in blood volume. Ten anesthetized adult Sinclair swine with retinal vitiligo were placed on stepwise decreasing amounts of oxygen. At each oxygen level, femoral artery oxygen saturation (SaO2) and retinal artery oxygen saturation (SraO2) were obtained. After equilibration on 100% O2, subjects were bled at 1.4 ml·kg-1·min-1 for 20 min. Subsequently, anticoagulated shed blood was reinfused at the same rate. During graded hypoxia, exsanguination, and reinfusion, SraO2 and SrvO2 were measured by using the EOX, and CO and SvO2 were measured by using a pulmonary artery catheter. During graded hypoxia, SraO2 correlated with SaO2 (r = 0.92). SrvO2 correlated with SvO2 (r = 0.89) during exsanguination and reinfusion. SVO2 and SrvO2 correlated with CO during blood removal and resuscitation (r = 0.92). Use of vitiligo retinas improved the calibration of EOX measurements. In this robust hemorrhage model, SrvO2 correlates with CO and SvO2 across the range of exsanguination and resuscitation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)891-896
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Applied Physiology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2003


  • Calibration
  • Noninvasive monitoring
  • Retinal oximetry
  • Swine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)


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