Retinal oximetry using intravitreal illumination

David Salyer, Neil Beaudry, Sreenivasa Basavanthappa, Karen Twietmeyer, Mohammad Eskandari, Kurt Denninghoff, Russell Chipman, Robert Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Purpose: To demonstrate spectroscopic retinal oximetry measurements on arteries and veins in swine using intravitreal illumination. Retinal arterial and venous saturations are measured for a range of inspired O 2 levels after pars plana vitrectomy. Methods: Pars plana vitrectomy and intravitreal manipulations were performed on two female American Yorkshire domestic swine. Light from a scanning monochromator was coupled into a fiberoptic intraocular illuminator inserted into the vitreous. The retinal vessels were illuminated obliquely, minimizing vessel glints. Multispectral images of the retinal vasculature were obtained as the swine's arterial blood oxygen saturation was decreased from 100% to 67% in decrements of approximately 10%. Retinal vessel spectra were used to calculate oxygen saturation in selected arteries and veins. Arterial oxygen saturations were calibrated using blood gas analysis on blood drawn from a Swan-Ganz catheter placed in the femoral artery. Results: Oblique illumination of retinal vessels using an intravitreal fiberoptic illuminator provided a substantial reduction in the central vessel glint usually seen in fundus images, thus simplifying the analysis of spectral data. The vessel shadows were displaced from the vessel image simplifying the light paths in the eye. Using a full spectral analysis simplified by the light path reductions, we calculated retinal vessel saturations. The reduction of glint allowed for increased accuracy in measuring retinal vessel spectral optical density. Abnormally low retinal venous oxygen saturations were observed shortly after pars plana vitrectomy. Conclusions: Retinal oximetry using intravitreal illumination has been demonstrated. As a research tool, intravitreal illumination addresses several difficulties encountered when performing retinal oximetry with transcorneal illumination.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)617-627
Number of pages11
JournalCurrent Eye Research
Issue number7-8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2006


  • Multispectral imaging
  • Retinal oximetry
  • Spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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