Retinal oximeter for the blue-green oximetry technique

Kurt R. Denninghoff, Katarzyna B. Sieluzycka, Jennifer K. Hendryx, Tyson J. Ririe, Lawrence DeLuca, Russell A. Chipman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Retinal oximetry offers potential for noninvasive assessment of central venous oxyhemoglobin saturation (SO 2) via the retinal vessels but requires a calibrated accuracy of ±3% saturation in order to be clinically useful. Prior oximeter designs have been hampered by poor saturation calibration accuracy.We demonstrate that the bluegreen oximetry (BGO) technique can provide accuracy within ±3% in swine when multiply scattered light from blood within a retinal vessel is isolated. A noninvasive on-axis scanning retinal oximeter (ROx-3) is constructed that generates a multiwavelength image in the range required for BGO. A field stop in the detection pathway is used in conjunction with an anticonfocal bisecting wire to remove specular vessel reflections and isolate multiply backscattered light from the blood column within a retinal vessel. This design is tested on an enucleated swine eye vessel and a retinal vein in a human volunteer with retinal SO 2 measurements of ∼1 and ∼65%, respectively. These saturations, calculated using the calibration line from earlier work, are internally consistent with a standard error of the mean of ±2% SO 2. The absolute measures are well within the expected saturation range for the site (-1 and 63%). This is the first demonstration of noninvasive on-axis BGO retinal oximetry.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number107004
JournalJournal of biomedical optics
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2011


  • backscattering
  • biomedical optics
  • multispectral imaging
  • reflectometry
  • spatial filtering
  • spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomedical Engineering


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