Retinal large vessel oxygen saturations correlate with early blood loss and hypoxia in anesthetized swine

Kurt R. Denninghoff, Matthew H. Smith, Russell A. Chipman, Lloyd W. Hillman, Penelope M. Jester, Charles E. Hughes, Ferenc Kuhn, Loring W. Rue

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Background: Noninvasive monitoring would likely improve trauma care. Using laser technology, we monitored the oxygen saturation in retinal vessels during exsanguination and hypoxia. Methods: Seven anesthetized swine were bled at 0.4 mL/kg/min for 40 minutes. During exsanguination, retinal venous saturation (S(rv)O2) was measured using an eye oximeter, and central venous saturation (S(v)O2) was measured using a fiber-optic catheter. After the shed blood was reinfused, the FiO2 was progressively decreased from 0.97 to 0.07. Femoral artery oxygen saturation (S(a)O2) and retinal artery oxygen saturation (S(ra)O2) were measured at each increment. Results: During exsanguination, S(rv)O2 correlated with blood loss (r = -0.93) and S(v)O2 (r = 0.94). S(ra)O2 correlated with S(a)O2 during incremental hypoxia (R2 = 0.93 ± 0.15). Conclusions: In this model of exsanguination, retinal venous oxygen saturation correlates with blood volume and with central venous oxygen saturation. The S(ra)o2 correlates with S(a)O2 during graded hypoxia. Use of an eye oximeter to noninvasively monitor trauma patients appears promising and warrants further study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)29-34
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Trauma - Injury, Infection and Critical Care
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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