Resuscitation regimens for hemorrhagic shock must contain blood

El Rasheid Zakaria, David A. Spain, Patrick D. Harris, R. Neal Garrison

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Endothelial cell dysfunction occurs during hemorrhagic shock (HS) and persists despite adequate resuscitation (RES) that restores and maintains hemodynamics. We hypothesize that RES from HS with crystalloid solutions alone aggravate the endothelial cell dysfunction. To test this hypothesis, anesthetized nonheparinized rats were monitored for hemodynamics, and the terminal ileum was studied with intravital video microscopy. HS was 50% of mean arterial pressure (MAP) for 60 min. Four hemorrhaged groups (10 animals in each group) were randomized for RES: group I with shed blood returned + equal volume of normal saline (NS); group II with shed blood returned + 2x NS; group III with 2x NS only; and group IV with 4x NS only. Two hours post-RES, endothelial cell function was assessed with the endothelial-dependent agonist acetylcholine (ACh, 10-9-10-4 M). Maximum arteriolar diameter was elicited by the endothelial-independent agonist sodium nitroprusside (NTP, 10-4 M). HS caused a selective vasoconstriction associated with low blood flow in inflow A1 arterioles in all hemorrhaged groups. Post-RES vasoconstriction developed in A1 and premucosal arterioles (pA3 and dA3) in all hemorrhaged groups regardless of the RES regimen. However, A1 vasoconstriction and flow were significantly worst in the animals RES with NS alone (-43% and -75%, respectively) compared with those resuscitated with blood and NS (-27% and -57%). Impaired dilation response to ACh was noted in all hemorrhaged animals. However, a significant shift to the right of the dose-response curve (decreased sensitivity) was observed in the animals resuscitated with NS alone irrespective of the RES volume. These animals required at least two orders of magnitude greater ACh concentration to produce a 20% dilation response. For all vessel types, Group II had the best preservation of endothelial cell function. In conclusion, HS causes a selective vasoconstriction of A1 arterioles, which was not observed in A3 vessels. RES from HS results in progressive vasoconstriction in all intestinal arterioles irrespective of the RES regimen. Crystalloid RES after HS does not restore hemodynamics to baseline and is associated with a marked endothelial cell dysfunction. Blood-containing RES regimens preserve and maintain hemodynamics and are associated with the least microvascular dysfunction. Therefore, regimens for RES from HS must contain blood. Endothelial cell dysfunction is not the sole etiologic factor of post-RES microvascular impairment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)567-573
Number of pages7
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Endothelial cell
  • Hemorrhagic shock
  • Multiple organ failure
  • Resuscitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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