Resilience and Stress Among Hopi Female Caregivers

Felina M. Cordova-Marks, James K. Cunningham, Robin B. Harris, Lynn B. Gerald, Beatrice Norton, Ann M Mastergeorge, Nicolette I Teufel-Shone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Abstract: Resilience and stress are important factors in the caregiving experience, but research has yet to examine their association among American Indian (AI) caregivers. This study examines resilience and stress in a group of Hopi female caregivers. Data came from the Hopi Adult Caregiver Survey (2017), which conducted interviews with 44 Hopi women who were providing care without remuneration to an adult family member. Measures included the abbreviated Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD- RISC-10), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), and questions about caregiver characteristics, care recipient characteristics, social support/ community support, and cultural factors. Stress and resilience were looked at above the median (higher stress or higher resilience) and below the median (lower stress or lower resilience). Caregivers who reported relatively lower resilience were more likely to report that they lived separately from their care recipients and that all Hopis are expected to be caregivers. Caregivers who reported relatively higher stress reported a higher total number of caregiver difficulties, a poorer self-perception of their own health, use of a traditional healer in the past 5 years, and that females are expected to be caregivers. A regression analysis adjusting for age, education, and employment status indicated that higher resilience among the caregivers was significantly associated with lower stress. In light of these findings, programs working with AI caregivers may wish to explore whether supporting the resilience of these caregivers is a means towards limiting their stress.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)76-89
Number of pages14
JournalAmerican Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Anthropology
  • History
  • General Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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