Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease with a complex aetiology and high mortality. Functional and structural changes in the small pulmonary arteries lead to elevated pulmonary arterial pressure, resulting in right heart failure. The pathobiology of PAH is not fully understood, and novel treatment targets in PAH are desperately needed. The renin-angiotensin system is critical for maintaining homeostasis of the cardiovascular system. The system consists of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-angiotensin (Ang) II-angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) axis and the ACE2-Ang-(1–7)-Mas receptor axis. The former, the ACE-Ang II-AT1R axis, is involved in vasoconstrictive and hypertensive actions along with cardiac and vascular remodelling. The latter, the ACE2-Ang-(1–7)-Mas axis, generally mediates counterbalancing effects against those mediated by the ACE-Ang II-AT1R axis. Based on established functions, the ACE2-Ang-(1–7)-Mas axis may represent a novel target for the treatment of PAH. This review focuses on recent advances in pulmonary circulation science and the role of the ACE2-Ang-(1–7)-Mas axis in PAH.
- ACE-Ang II-ATR axis
- ACE2-Ang-(1–7)-Mas axis
- Pulmonary arterial hypertension
- Renin-angiotensin system
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Pharmacology (medical)