Renal Cell Carcinoma Surgical Treatment Disparities in American Indian/Alaska Natives and Hispanic Americans in Arizona

Francine C. Gachupin, Benjamin R. Lee, Juan Chipollini, Kathryn R. Pulling, Alejandro Cruz, Ava C. Wong, Celina I. Valencia, Chiu Hsieh Hsu, Ken Batai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) and Hispanic Americans (HA) have higher kidney cancer incidence and mortality rates compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). Herein, we describe the disparity in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) surgical treatment for AI/AN and HA and the potential association with mortality in Arizona. A total of 5111 stage I RCC cases diagnosed between 2007 and 2016 from the Arizona Cancer Registry were included. Statistical analyses were performed to test the association of race/ethnicity with surgical treatment pattern and overall mortality, adjusting for patients’ demographic, healthcare access, and socioeconomic factors. AI/AN were diagnosed 6 years younger than NHW and were more likely to receive radical rather than partial nephrectomy (OR 1.49 95% CI: 1.07–2.07) compared to NHW. Mexican Americans had increased odds of not undergoing surgical treatment (OR 1.66, 95% CI: 1.08–2.53). Analysis showed that not undergoing surgical treatment and undergoing radical nephrectomy were statistically significantly associated with higher overall mortality (HR 1.82 95% CI: 1.21–2.76 and HR 1.59 95% CI: 1.30–1.95 respectively). Mexican Americans, particularly U.S.-born Mexican Americans, had an increased risk for overall mortality and RCC-specific mortality even after adjusting for neighborhood socioeconomic factors and surgical treatment patterns. Although statistically not significant after adjusting for neighborhood-level socioeconomic factors and surgical treatment patterns, AI/AN had an elevated risk of mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1185
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 1 2022


  • Arizona cancer
  • Cancer health disparities
  • Kidney cancer
  • Nephrectomy
  • Surgical treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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