Renal Cell Carcinoma Surgical Treatment Disparities in American Indian/Alaska Natives and Hispanic Americans in Arizona

Francine C Gachupin, Benjamin R. Lee, Juan Chipollini, Kathryn R. Pulling, Alejandro Cruz, Ava C. Wong, Celina I. Valencia, Chiu Hsieh Hsu, Ken Batai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) and Hispanic Americans (HA) have higher kidney cancer incidence and mortality rates compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). Herein, we describe the disparity in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) surgical treatment for AI/AN and HA and the potential association with mortality in Arizona. A total of 5111 stage I RCC cases diagnosed between 2007 and 2016 from the Arizona Cancer Registry were included. Statistical analyses were performed to test the association of race/ethnicity with surgical treatment pattern and overall mortality, adjusting for patients’ demographic, healthcare access, and socioeconomic factors. AI/AN were diagnosed 6 years younger than NHW and were more likely to receive radical rather than partial nephrectomy (OR 1.49 95% CI: 1.07–2.07) compared to NHW. Mexican Americans had increased odds of not undergoing surgical treatment (OR 1.66, 95% CI: 1.08–2.53). Analysis showed that not undergoing surgical treatment and undergoing radical nephrectomy were statistically significantly associated with higher overall mortality (HR 1.82 95% CI: 1.21–2.76 and HR 1.59 95% CI: 1.30–1.95 respectively). Mexican Americans, particularly U.S.-born Mexican Americans, had an increased risk for overall mortality and RCC-specific mortality even after adjusting for neighborhood socioeconomic factors and surgical treatment patterns. Although statistically not significant after adjusting for neighborhood-level socioeconomic factors and surgical treatment patterns, AI/AN had an elevated risk of mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1185
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 1 2022


  • Arizona cancer
  • Cancer health disparities
  • Kidney cancer
  • Nephrectomy
  • Surgical treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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