Removal of MS-2 and PRD-1 bacteriophages from an ultrapure water system

R. A. Governal, C. P. Gerba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Viruses must be removed from the ultrapure water environment, as they have the potential to deposit on microelectronic devices and generate killer defects. Controlled and well-defined challenges by MS-2 and PRD-1 bacteriophages were treated in a pilot-scale ultrapure water system using ultraviolet radiation (UV), ozone, mixed bed ion exchange adsorption, and reverse osmosis filtration technologies typical of those used in industrial systems. ApplyIng a first order kinetic model to the data generated rate constants for MS-2 removal by UV-185, 50 mg L-1 ozone, mixed bed ion exchange or reverse osmosis filtration of 15.5, 12.9, 3.9, and 10.4 min-1, respectively, and PRD-1 removal of 13.8, 15.5, 8.2, and 11.9 min-1, respectively. In all cases, removal of viruses by oxidative mechanisms such as ozone and UV were far superior to adsorption and filtration mechanisms. A theoretical viral population balance was generated to model the removal of the bacteriophages by these unit operations. This model relates the inlet time-dependent profile of viruses to the output, destruction, and accumulation profiles; it also relates these profiles to the unit operation's treatment mechanisms including oxidation, adsorption, and filtration. This model is the first step in generating a site-independent theoretical model to project the persistence of viruses in ultrapure water systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)166-172
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1999


  • Coliphage
  • Inactivation
  • Ion exchange
  • Ozone
  • Reverse osmosis
  • Ultraviolet light (UV)
  • Viruses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology


Dive into the research topics of 'Removal of MS-2 and PRD-1 bacteriophages from an ultrapure water system'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this