Remote percutaneous renal access using a new automated telesurgical robotic system

John Bauer, Benjamin R. Lee, Dan Stoianovici, Jay T. Bishoff, Salvatore Micali, Francesco Micali, Louis R. Kavoussi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


Previous clinical application of remote telesurgery has been the use of a novel system of video teleconferencing equipment along with remote control of a laparoscopic camera at distances over 11,000 miles. Recently, a robotic system has been developed to assist with percutaneous renal surgery. This robot has been incorporated into the telesurgical system to allow remote needle placement into the renal collecting system under radiological guidance. The main component of the telesurgical system is a low degree of freedom robot called "PAKY" (percutaneous access of the kidney). It is custom designed for fluoroscopic guided percutaneous needle insertion into the renal collecting system. The robot is a six-degrees of freedom device. However, when the skin entry site is fixed and held in position, only two degrees of freedom are required to orient the needle in the correct plane for accurate insertion. Remote control of the robot was accomplished over a plain old telephone system (POTS) line. On June 17, 1998, the first remote telerobotic percutaneous renal access procedure was performed between the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, and Tor Vergata University, Rome, Italy. This new telesurgical robot was successful in term of obtaining percutaneous access within 20 min, with two attempts to obtain entry into the collecting system. This robot represents the first system for performing remote telesurgical interventions in the kidney and demonstrates the feasibility and safety of assisting accurate and rapid needle access to the kidney during percutaneous procedures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)341-346
Number of pages6
JournalTelemedicine and e-Health
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics
  • Health Information Management


Dive into the research topics of 'Remote percutaneous renal access using a new automated telesurgical robotic system'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this