Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) is a key regulator of mitochondrial fission, a large cytoplasmic GTPase recruited to the mitochondrial surface via transmembrane adaptors to initiate scission. While Brownian motion likely accounts for the local interactions between Drp1 and the mitochondrial adaptors, how this essential enzyme is targeted from more distal regions like the cell periphery remains unknown. Based on proteomic interactome screening and cell-based studies, we report that GAIP/RGS19-interacting protein (GIPC) mediates the actin-based retrograde transport of Drp1 toward the perinuclear mitochondria to enhance fission. Drp1 interacts with GIPC through its atypical C-terminal PDZ-binding motif. Loss of this interaction abrogates Drp1 retrograde transport resulting in cytoplasmic mislocalization and reduced fission despite retaining normal intrinsic GTPase activity. Functionally, we demonstrate that GIPC potentiates the Drp1-driven proliferative and migratory capacity in cancer cells. Together, these findings establish a direct molecular link between altered GIPC expression and Drp1 function in cancer progression and metabolic disorders.
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