Regular Mammography Screening Among African American (AA) Women: Qualitative Application of the PEN-3 Framework

Adebola Adegboyega, Adaeze Aroh, Kaitlin Voigts, Hatcher Jennifer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Introduction: Breast cancer mortality rates among African American (AA) women are at 29.2 deaths per 100,000 persons compared with 20.6 deaths per 100,000 persons among Caucasian women. Regular mammography screening may significantly reduce breast cancer mortality and narrow this disparity. This study guided by PEN-3 model aims to explore the relationships and expectations domain and identify perceptions, enablers, and nurturers of regular mammography among AA women. Method: As part of an intervention study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 39 AA women recruited from the emergency department of a public university hospital. Results: Women’s perceptions included fear and limited knowledge. Enablers identified were cost, socioeconomic, and race-related discrimination, and health care previous experiences. Nurturers identified included observation of family experiences and lack of health-related social support. Discussion: Findings underscore the need to develop culturally tailored interventions to address the issues salient to this population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)444-452
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Transcultural Nursing
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2019


  • African Americans
  • breast cancer
  • mammography screening
  • qualitative analysis
  • semistructured interviews

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Regular Mammography Screening Among African American (AA) Women: Qualitative Application of the PEN-3 Framework'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this