Reduction of soot emissions by iron pentacarbonyl in isooctane diffusion flames

K. B. Kim, K. A. Masiello, D. W. Hahn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


Light-scattering measurements, in situ laser-induced fluorescence, and thermophoretic sampling with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, were performed in laboratory isooctane diffusion flames seeded with 4000 ppm iron pentacarbonyl. These measurements allowed the determination of the evolution of the size, number density, and volume fraction of soot particles through the flame. Comparison to unseeded flame data provided a detailed assessment of the effects of iron addition on soot particle inception, growth, and oxidation processes. Iron was found to produce a minor soot-enhancing effect at early residence times, while subsequent soot particle growth was largely unaffected. It is concluded that primarily elemental iron is incorporated within the soot particles during particle inception and growth. However, iron addition was found to enhance the rate of soot oxidation during the soot burnout regime, yielding a two-thirds reduction in overall soot emissions. In situ spectroscopic measurements probed the transient nature of elemental iron throughout the flame, revealing significant loss of elemental iron, presumably to iron oxides, with increasing flame residence, suggesting catalysis of soot oxidation via iron oxide species.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)164-180
Number of pages17
JournalCombustion and Flame
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Jul 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Fuel additives
  • Iron pentacarbonyl
  • Soot emissions control
  • Soot oxidation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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