Reduction of Ilmenite with Hydrogen

Y. Zhao, F. Shadman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


The kinetics and the mechanism of reduction of synthetic ilmenite by hydrogen in the temperature range of 807-1014 °C were investigated. At temperatures below 876 °C, the temporal profiles of conversion have a sigmoidal shape and indicate the presence of three different stages (induction, acceleration, and deceleration) during the reduction reaction. The apparent activation energy for the reaction is 22.3 kcal/mol, whereas the intrinsic activation energy is 16.9 kcal/mol. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses show that the diffusion of Fe product away from the reaction front and through the TiO2 phase, followed by the nucleation and growth of a separate Fe phase, is an important step affecting the process kinetics. X-ray diffraction and wavelength-dispersive X-ray results indicate that the TiO2 can be reduced to lower oxides of titanium at temperatures higher than 876 °C.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2080-2087
Number of pages8
JournalIndustrial and Engineering Chemistry Research
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 1991

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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