Reduction of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Fecal Indicators by Bardenpho Wastewater Treatment

Bradley W. Schmitz, Hitoha Moriyama, Eiji Haramoto, Masaaki Kitajima, Samendra Sherchan, Charles P. Gerba, Ian L. Pepper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Increased demand for water reuse and reclamation accentuates the importance for optimal wastewater treatment to limit protozoa in effluents. Two wastewater treatment plants utilizing advanced Bardenpho were investigated over a 12-month period to determine the incidence and reduction of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Cyclospora, and fecal indicators. Results were compared to facilities that previously operated in the same geographical area. Protozoa (oo)cysts were concentrated using an electronegative filter and subsequently detected by fluorescent microscopy and/or PCR methods. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were frequently detected in raw sewage, but Cyclospora was not detected in any wastewater samples. Facilities with Bardenpho treatment exhibited higher removals of (oo)cysts than facilities utilizing activated sludge or trickling filters. This was likely due to Bardenpho systems having increased solid wasting rates; however, this mechanism cannot be confirmed as sludge samples were not analyzed. Use of dissolved-air-flotation instead of sedimentation tanks did not result in more efficient removal of (oo)cysts. Concentrations of protozoa were compared with each other, Escherichia coli, somatic coliphage, and viruses (pepper mild mottle virus, Aichi virus 1, adenovirus, and polyomaviruses JC and BK). Although significant correlations were rare, somatic coliphage showed the highest potential as an indicator for the abundance of protozoa in wastewaters.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7015-7023
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Jun 19 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry


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