Reducing surface recombination velocity of methylammonium-free mixed-cation mixed-halide perovskites via surface passivation

Sarthak Jariwala, Sven Burke, Sean Dunfield, R. Clayton Shallcross, Margherita Taddei, Jian Wang, Giles E. Eperon, Neal R. Armstrong, Joseph J. Berry, David S. Ginger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


We control surface recombination in the mixed-cation, mixed-halide perovskite, FA0.83Cs0.17Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3, by passivating nonradiative defects with the polymerizable Lewis base (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS). We demonstrate average minority carrier lifetimes >4 μs, nearly single exponential monomolecular photoluminescence decays, and high external photoluminescence quantum efficiencies (>20%, corresponding to ~97% of the maximum theoretical quasi-Fermi-level splitting) at low excitation fluence. We confirm both the composition and valence band edge position of the FA0.83Cs0.17Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3 perovskite using multi-institutional, cross-validated, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. We extend the APTMS surface passivation to higher bandgap double-cation (FA and Cs) compositions (1.7, 1.75, and 1.8 eV) as well as the widely used triple-cation (FA, MA, and Cs) composition. Finally, we demonstrate that the average surface recombination velocity decreases from ~1000 to ~10 cm/s post APTMS passivation for FA0.83Cs0.17Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3. Our results demonstrate that surface-mediated recombination is the primary nonradiative loss pathway in many methylammonium (MA)-free mixed-cation mixed-halide films with a range of different bandgaps, which is a problem observed for a wide range of perovskite active layers and reactive electrical contacts. Our study also provides insights to develop passivating molecules that help reduce surface recombination in MA-free mixed-cation mixed-halide films and indicates that surface passivation and contact engineering will enable near-theoretical device efficiencies with these materials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5035-5044
Number of pages10
JournalChemistry of Materials
Issue number13
StatePublished - Jul 13 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Chemistry


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