Realizing acoustic qubit analogues with nonlinearly tunable phi-bits in externally driven coupled acoustic waveguides

P. A. Deymier, K. Runge, M. A. Hasan, T. D. Lata, J. A. Levine, P. Cutillas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Using experiments and theory, we investigate the behavior of nonlinear acoustic modes in a physical system composed of an array of three coupled acoustic waveguides, two of which are externally driven with two different frequencies. Nonlinear modes with frequency given by linear combinations of the driving frequencies are realizations of so-called logical phi-bits. A phi-bit is a two-state degree of freedom of an acoustic wave, which can be in a coherent superposition of states with complex amplitude coefficients, i.e., a qubit analogue. We demonstrate experimentally that phi-bit modes are supported in the array of waveguides. Using perturbation theory, we show that phi-bits may result from the intrinsic nonlinearity of the material used to couple the waveguides. We have also isolated possible effects on phi-bit states associated with the systems’ electronics, transducers and ultrasonic coupling agents used to probe the array and that may introduce extrinsic nonlinearities. These extrinsic effects are shown to be easily separable from the intrinsic behavior. The intrinsic behavior includes sharp jumps in phi-bit phases occurring over very narrow ranges of driving frequency. These jumps may also exhibit hysteretic behavior dependent on the direction of driving frequency tuning. The intrinsic states of phi-bits and multiple nonlinearly correlated phi-bits may serve as foundation for robust and practical quantum-analogue information technologies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number635
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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