Purpose: To evaluate real-world prescription digital therapeutic (PDT) use and associated clinical outcomes among patients with opioid use disorder (OUD). Patients and methods: A real-world observational evaluation of patients who filled either a 12- or 24-week (refill) prescription for the reSET-O® PDT. The PDT content consists of 67 interactive lessons unlocked in sequence during use as well as the chance to earn rewards for progress and/or negative urine screens. Engagement/retention data (ongoing engagement in weeks 9–12, or 21–24) were collected via the PDT and analyzed with descriptive statistics. Substance use was evaluated as a composite of patient self-reports and urine drug screens (UDS). Missing UDS data were assumed to be positive. A regression analyses of hospital encounters for 12- vs. 24-week prescriptions controlling for covariates was conducted. Results: In a cohort of 3,817 individuals with OUD who completed a 12-week PDT prescription, a cohort of 643 was prescribed a second 12-week ‘refill’ prescription, for a total treatment time of 24 weeks. Mean age of the 24-week cohort was 39 years, 56.7% female. At 24 weeks of total treatment: abstinence in the last 4 weeks of treatment was 86% in an analysis in which patients with no data are assumed to be positive for illicit opioids. Over 91% of patients were retained in treatment. An analysis of matched insurance claims showed that those treated for 24 weeks had a 27% decrease in unique hospital encounters compared to those who got the first 12-week prescription only. Conclusions: These data present real-world evidence that a second prescription (24 weeks) of a PDT for OUD is associated with improved outcomes, high levels of retention, and fewer hospital encounters compared to a single prescription for a PDT. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Prescription digital therapeutics (PDTs) are software-based treatments that are FDA-authorized to improve clinical outcomes for serious diseases and conditions. The reSET-O PDT consists of 67 interactive lessons unlocked in sequence during use as well as the chance to earn rewards for progress and/or negative urine screens. Multiple studies show that a single 12-week PDT prescription for opioid use disorder (OUD) helps patients engage in treatment, reduces substance use, and helps patients remain in treatment, but to date there has been no evaluation of how patients who receive a ‘refill’ second prescription engage with the therapeutic and whether the positive effects on substance use and retention are durable across a second 12 weeks (total of 24 weeks) of treatment. This real-world analysis evaluated 643 patients from 12 U.S. states who were prescribed a second PDT prescription. 93% of this cohort completed 8 or more core lesson modules in the second prescription period, 85% completed at least half of core modules, and 64% completed all 32 core modules. Patients used the PDT outside of clinic hours about 40% of the time. 94.4% of patients had 80% or greater negative reports of opioid use across the second 12 weeks of treatment. A 27% decrease in unique hospital encounters was observed in patients who completed a second prescription vs. patients who completed only one prescription. These data show that a second prescription of a PDT for OUD is associated with postive patient outcomes. Patients showed durable and high levels of engagement with the PDT, reduced substance use, and improved treatment retention through 24 weeks of treatment.
- Digital therapeutic
- medications for opioid use disorder
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health Information Management
- General Medicine
- Clinical Biochemistry