Radial fast spin-echo method for T2-weighted imaging and T2 mapping of the liver

Maria I. Altbach, Eric K. Outwater, Theodore P. Trouard, Elizabeth A. Krupinski, Rebecca J. Theilmann, Alison T. Stopeck, Mitsuko Kono, Arthur F. Gmitro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

66 Scopus citations


Purpose: To evaluate a multishot radial fast-spin echo (RAD-FSE) method developed to improve the quality of abdominal T2-weighted imaging as well as the characterization of focal liver lesions. Materials and Methods: The RAD-FSE sequence used in this work consisted of a preparatory period followed by a short echo train (ETL = 16). A novel radial k-space trajectory was used to minimize streaking artifacts due to T2 variations and motion. Small diffusion gradients (b = 1.2 mm/s2) were used to improve flow suppression. The quality of images obtained with RAD-FSE was compared to multishot 2DFT fast spin-echo (2DFT-FSE) and half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo-spin-echo (HASTE) images using data from 16 patients. A postprocessing algorithm was used to generate multiple high-resolution images (at different effective TE values) as well as a T2 map from a single RAD-FSE data set. The T2 maps were used to differentiate malignant from benign lesions for a set of 33 lesions ranging from 0.8-194 cm3. Results: RAD-FSE produces high-resolution images of the liver in a breath-hold without the motion artifacts of 2DFT-FSE methods, and without the blurriness and loss of small lesion detectability of HASTE. The inclusion of diffusion weighting in RAD-FSE decreases the signal from blood in hepatic vessels, which improves lesion visualization. The T2 values obtained by postprocessing a single RAD-FSE data set can differentiate malignant from benign lesions. The mean T2 values obtained for malignancies, hemangiomas, and cysts are 108 ± 30 msec, 240 ± 14 msec, and 572 ± 334 msec, respectively. Conclusion: These results indicate that RAD-FSE produces abdominal images of higher quality than 2DFT-FSE and HASTE. In addition, lesions can be characterized using T2 maps generated from a single RAD-FSE data set.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)179-189
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2002


  • Diffusion weighting
  • Fast spin-echo
  • Flow suppression
  • Projection reconstruction MRI
  • Radial MRI
  • T2 measurements

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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